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Urdu language

Urdu (/ˈʊərduː/; Urdu: اُردُو‎ ALA-LC: Urdū; IPA: [ˈʊrd̪uː] , or more precisely Modern Standard Urdu, is a standardized register of the Hindustani language. Urdu is historically associated with the Muslims of the region of Hindustan. It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, and an official language of six Indian states and one of the 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India. Apart from specialized vocabulary, Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, which is associated with the Hindu community. Origin Urdu formed from Khariboli—a Prakrit spoken in North India—by adding Persian and Arabic words to it. Contrary to the popular belief, it did not form in the camp of the Mughal armies. But the word Urdu is derived from the same Turkic word ordu (army) that has given English horde. However, Turkish borrowings in Urdu are minimal. The words that Urdu has borrowed from Turkish and Arabic have been borrowed through Farsi and hence are a Persianized version of the original word, for instance the Arabic 'teh marbuta ( ة ) changes to heh ( ه ) or teh ( ت ). Official status Urdu is the national and one of the two official languages of Pakistan, along with English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, whereas the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages. Only 7.57% of Pakistanis have Urdu as their mother language,[32] but Urdu is understood all over Pakistan. It is used in education, literature, office and court business. Dialects Urdu has a few recognized dialects, including Dakhni, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Dakhni (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Konkani, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states.