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Hungarian language

Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighboring countries—especially in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine—and by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide. Like Finnish and Estonian, it belongs to the Uralic language family, with its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty. It is one of the few languages of Europe that are not part of the Indo-European family. Prehistory It is thought that Hungarian separated from its Ugric relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium B.C., in western Siberia, east of the southern Urals. The Hungarians gradually changed their lifestyle from settled hunters to nomadic pastoralists(cattle, sheep), probably as a result of early contacts with Iranian nomads (Scythians, Sarmatians). In Hungarian, Iranian loans date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium.[11] Among these include tehén ‘cow’ (cf. Avestan dhaénu), tíz ‘ten’ (cf. Avestan dasa), tej ‘milk’ (cf. Persian dáje ‘wet nurse’, Kashmiridái ‘milk’), and nád ‘reed’ (from late Middle Iranian; cf. Middle Persian nāy). Lexicon Giving an accurate estimate for the total word count is difficult, since it is hard to define what to call "a word" in agglutinating languages, due to the existence of affixed words and compound words. To have a meaningful definition of compound words, we have to exclude such compounds whose meaning is the mere sum of its elements. The largest dictionaries from Hungarian to another language contain 120,000 words and phrases(but this may include redundant phrases as well, because of translation issues). Name order The Hungarian language uses the so-called eastern name order, in which the surname (general, deriving from the family) comes first and the given name comes last. If a second given name is used, this follows the first given name.