Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen; pronounced: [kɣejɔl ajisjɛ̃] French: créole haïtien), often called simply creole or kreyòl, is a French-based creole and is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French. The word creole is of Latin origin and is a Portuguese term that means, "raised in the home". It was first referred to Europeans born and raised in overseas colonies but later used to refer to the language as well. Haitian Creole is spoken by roughly ten to twelve million people. Haitian Creole is the first language of 90–95% of Haitians. Origin Dr. John Singler suggests that Creole was probably formed between the time the French colony of Saint-Domingue was founded in 1659 and 1740. It was during this period that the colony moved from tobacco and cotton production to a mostly sugar-based economy, which created a favorable setting for the Creole language to form. At the time of tobacco and cotton production, the Haitian population was made up of colonists, the engagés (employed whites), people of color and slaves in relatively balanced proportions, with roughly equal numbers of people of color and engages. Education Formal Education rates in Haiti are among the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti's literacy rate of about 53% (55% for males and 51% for females) is below the 90% average literacy rate for Latin American and Caribbean countries. The country faces shortages in educational supplies and qualified teachers. The rural population is less educated than the urban. The 2010 Haiti earthquake exacerbated the already constrained parameters on Haiti's educational system by destroying infrastructure and displacing 50-90% of the students, depending on locale. Revolution The Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti. The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state. Furthermore, it is generally considered the most successful slave rebellion ever to have occurred and as a defining moment in the histories of both Europe and the Americas. The revolt began with a rebellion of black African slaves in April of 1791.