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Bosnian language


Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin. Until the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, they were treated as a unitary Serbo-Croatian language, and that term is still used in English to subsume the common base (vocabulary, grammar and syntax) of what are today officially four national standards, although this term is controversial for native speakers, and paraphrases such as "Serbo-Croat-Bosnian" (SCB) or "Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian" (BCS) are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles. Debates Regarding Terminology The term “Bosniaks” refers to Muslim Bosnians, who are the primary speakers of the Bosnian language. Many people therefore argue that the language should be referred to as Bosniak, rather than Bosnian, as it is not the standard language of all Bosnians, due to the fact that a number of Serbs and Croats also inhabit present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Education The first classifiable higher-education institution having been established a school of Sufi philosophy by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531, with numerous other religious schools following suit over time. In 1887, under de facto Austro-Hungarian Empire control, a Sharia Law School began a five-year program.[1] In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available. Severely damaged during the war, it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are various other institutions of higher education, including: University of Banja Luka, University of Mostar, University of Tuzla, University of Zenica, University of East Sarajevo, University "Džemal Bijedić" of Mostar, University of Bihać, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is held in high regard as one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region. Visual arts The visual arts in Bosnia and Herzegovina were always evolving and ranged from the original medieval tombstones (stećak) to paintings in Kotromanić court. However, it was the Austro-Hungarian occupation in 1878 that led to the renaissance of Bosnian painting. The first artists trained in European academies emerged at the beginning of the 20th century. These included Gabrijel Jurkić, Petar Tiješić, Karlo Mijić, Špiro Bocarić, Petar Šain, Đoko Mazalić, Roman Petrović and Lazar Drljača. Their generation was succeeded by artists such as Ismet Mujezinović, Vojo Dimitrijević, Ivo Šeremet and Mica Todorović. Prominent artists in the post-World War II period include Virgilije Nevjestić, Bekir Misirlić, Ljubo Lah, Meho Sefić, Franjo Likar, Mersad Berber, Ibrahim Ljubović, Dževad Hozo, Affan Ramić, Safet Zec, Ismar Mujezinović, and Mehmed Zaimović. The Ars Aevi museum of contemporary art in Sarajevo includes works by artists renowned worldwide.