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Bihari language


Bihari is the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese population. Despite the large number of speakers of these languages, they have not been constitutionally recognized in India, except Maithili, which gained constitutional status via the 92nd amendment to the Constitution of India in 2003. Even in Bihar, Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters.[3] These languages were legally absorbed under the overarching label Hindi in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics are creating conditions for language endangerments. Nalanda Open University offers various courses on Bihari languages (Magahi, Bhojpuri, Maithili) Art Madhubani painting or Mithila painting is a style of Indo-Nepalese painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Nepal and India. Mithila Painting is done with fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments, and is characterized by eye-catching geometrical patterns. There are paintings for each occasion and festival such as birth, marriage, Dashain, Tihar (Dipawali), Chhath, Holi, Surya Shasti, kali puja, Bratabandha, Durga Puja etc. Medieval Period Bihar was largely in ruins when visited by Hsüan-tsang, the famous Buddhist monk from China, and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century.[36] With the advent of the foreign aggression and eventual foreign subjugation of India, Bihar passed through very uncertain times during the medieval period. Muhammad of Ghor attacked this region of the Indian subcontinent many times. Muhammad of Ghor's armies destroyed many Buddhist structures, including the great Nalanda university. Education Bihar, India, has been a major centre of learning, home to the universities of Nalanda (one of the earliest universities of India dating back to the fifth century) and Vikramshila. That tradition of learning which had its origin from the time of Buddha or perhaps earlier, was lost during the medieval period when it is believed that marauding armies of the invaders destroyed these centres of learning. Bihar saw a revival during the later part of the British rule when they established a University at Patna along with other centres of high learning, viz. Science College, Patna, Prince of Wales Medical College (Now Patna Medical College and Hospital), and Bihar Engineering College (Now National Institute of Technology, Patna). This early lead was lost in the post independence period when the politicians from Bihar lost out in the race of getting centres of education established in Bihar.